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Khufu was the second king in ancient Egypt’s Old Kingdom’s Fourth Dynasty. Egyptologists believe Khufu reigned for around twenty-three years based on the evidence contained in the Turin Kings List. In contrast, Herodotus claimed he ruled for fifty years while Manetho a Ptolemaic priest credits him with a staggering reign of sixty-three years! Facts About …

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Ramses II (c. 1279-1213 BCE) was the third pharaoh of Egypt’s 19th Dynasty (c. 1292-1186 BCE). Egyptologists frequently acknowledge Ramses II as perhaps the most celebrated, most powerful and the greatest pharaoh of the ancient Egyptian Empire. The respect with which his place in history was viewed by his successors is shown by later generations …

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When we think of the Queens of Egypt the seductive allure of Cleopatra or Nefertiti’s enigmatic bust typically springs to mind. Yet the story of Egypt’s Queens is more complex than popular stereotypes would have us believe. Ancient Egyptian society was a conservative, traditional patriarchal society. Men dominated key positions of state from the Pharaoh’s …

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Seti I or Menmaatre Seti I (1290-1279 BCE) was a Nineteenth Dynasty pharaoh of Egypt’s New Kingdom. As with many ancient Egypt dates, the precise dates of Seti I’s reign remain a point of contention amongst historians. A common alternate date for Seti I’s reign is 1294 BC to 1279 BC. After ascending to the …

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Today, Nefertiti’s (c. 1370 to 1336 BCE) face is one of the most recognizable images of the ancient world. Her name translates as, “the beautiful one has come.” Thanks to a world-famous bust by the sculptor Thutmose discovered in 1912, Nefertiti’s image has achieved a newfound fame thousands of years after being erased from ancient …

Read More about Queen Nefertiti: Her Rule with Akhenaten & Mummy Controversy

Imhotep (c. 2667-2600 BCE) was a priest, vizier to Egypt’s King Djoser, an architect, mathematician, astronomer, poet and physician. An Egyptian polymath, Imhotep achieved fame for his breakthrough architectural design of King Djoser’s Step Pyramid at Saqqara. His virtuoso contribution to Egyptian culture was recognized when he became the sole Egyptian outside of the pharaoh …

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For 6,000 years spanning the Pre-Dynastic Period (c. 6000 – 3150 BCE) through to the defeat of the Ptolemaic Dynasty (323 – 30 BCE) and Egypt’s annexation by Rome Egyptian architects under the direction of their pharaohs imposed their will on the landscape. They passed down a breathtaking legacy of iconic pyramids, imposing monuments and …

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Thutmose III (1458-1425 BCE) also known as Tuthmosis III was Egypt’s 6th king of the 18th Dynasty. He forged an enduring reputation as one of antiquity’s greatest military leaders. This military prowess set the platform for his position as one of Egypt’s most effective monarchs. His throne name, Thutmose, translates as ‘Thoth is Born,’ while …

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Amenhotep III (c. 1386-1353 BCE) was the ninth king in Egypt’s 18th dynasty. Amenhotep III was also known as Amana-Hatpa, Amenophis III, Amenhotep II and Nebma’atre. These names reflect the concept of the god Amun being pleased or satisfied or, as in Nebma’atre, with the concept of satisfied balance. Amenhotep III’s most significant contribution to …

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Akhenaten was a pharaoh of Egypt. When he ascended to the throne his name was Amenhotep IV. Scholars believe his reign over Egypt lasted for around 17 years ruling sometime around 1353 B.C. to 1335 B.C. Few monarchs in history achieved as much notoriety as Akhenaten in his lifetime. Akhenaten’s reign began conventionally enough showing …

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Cleopatra VII (69-30 BCE) had the misfortune to ascend the throne at a time when Egypt’s wealth and military power were in decline and an aggressive and assertive Roman Empire was expanding. The legendary queen also suffered from history’s tendency to define powerful female rulers by the men in their lives. Cleopatra VII was Egypt’s …

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To Egyptologists, the Pharaoh Djoser came to power during a time of immense development in Egypt’s history. Agriculture, trade, architecture, the arts, Egypt’s civil administration and their state theology all flourished during his reign. These notable achievements made Djoser one of the Third Dynasty’s better-known pharaohs. While scholars have expressed reservations over dating Djoser’s reign, …

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Throughout Egypt’s long span of recorded history, its military adopted a diverse range of ancient weaponry. In Egypt’s early periods, worked stone and wooden weapons dominated the Egyptian arsenal. Typical weapons employed during Egypt’s early skirmishes and battles included stone maces, clubs, spears, throwing sticks and slings. Bows were also built in large numbers and …

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Strategically, Egypt was blessed with imposing natural defensive lines. Egypt’s swath of desert made the country a difficult target for invasion. The Mediterranean Sea protected Egypt’s northern border while the five cataracts of the mighty Nile River guarded its southern border. Socially, the Egyptians enjoyed the advantage of being culturally and ethnically unified, an advantage …

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Centred in North Africa on the Nile Delta, ancient Egypt was one of the most powerful and influential civilizations of the ancient world. It’s complex political structure and social organisation, military campaigns, vibrant culture, language and religious observances towered the Bronze Age, casting a shadow that lasted during its long twilight into the Iron Age …

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An affinity for making and appreciating music is one of humanity’s defining characteristics. Little wonder then that the vibrant ancient Egyptian culture embraced music and musicians. Music and musicians were valued highly amongst ancient Egyptian society. Music was believed to be integral to the act of creation and was essential for communing with their pantheon …

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